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Men, women and …. hormones

Hormones are substances produced by glands of the endocrine system, which convey complex information to the body’s cells with great accuracy and speed.
In the sexual area, the hormones play essential functions during all stages of life, particularly for the men over 40s and women during menopause.
What are the male and female hormones, what are the functions, and what happens if their levels are unbalanced? Let’s see the most important ones.

Testosterone.

It is a steroid hormone, mostly masculine, it has fundamental activity during the growth. In the adult promotes hair growth and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics.
It keeps the libido, stimulate spermatogenesis and production of erythropoietin, it promotes also the protein synthesis and the growth of the lean body mass to the detriment of the fat body mass.
Altered levels can be caused by overweight and obesity.
Imbalances in testosterone concentrations may be associated with coronary heart disease and cardiovascular risk.

Androstenedione.

It is a steroid hormone, precursor of estradiol and testosterone. The dosage is important in the monitoring of the diseases related to deficiency of androgen synthesis.
Too high levels of this hormone are often associated with acne, hirsutism and baldness.

Estrogen.

They are mostly female hormones. They stimulate the development of secondary sexual characteristics, allowing fecundation and pregnancy and they regulate the menstrual cycle, as well as the distribution of body fat. They protect from osteoporosis, cardiovascular risk and atherosclerosis. They also stimulate lipolysis in adipose tissue and muscle.
Too high concentration may expose women to greater risk of developing certain forms of cancer such as breast cancer, insulin resistance, and infertility.
In men, with age, especially in the case of reduced physical activity and overweigh the natural decline in testosterone production is associated with an increase in its conversion to estrogens, with unpleasant side effects such as increased breast tissue, decreased sex drive, erection problems and decreased fertility.

Progesterone.

It is a steroid hormone, predominantly female. It is responsible for ovulation, fertility and menopause.
In men it is produced in small amounts by the testicular Leydig cells: it is important to evaluate the concentration of progesterone since it was discovered that inhibits hair loss and prostate hypertrophy, but in higher quantities can suppress the production of androgens leading to atrophy of the testes and prostate.

And how are your hormones doing?
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